All you need to know about IPO
What is an Initial Public Offering?
Initial Public Offering (IPO) is when an unlisted company makes either a fresh issue of securities or an offer for sale of its existing securities or both for the first time to the public. This paves way for listing and trading of the issuer’s securities.
Who decides the price of an issue?
Indian primary market ushered in an era of free pricing in 1992. Following this, the guidelines have provided that the issuer in consultation with Merchant Banker shall decide the price. There is no price formula stipulated by SEBI. SEBI does not play any role in price fixation. The company and merchant banker are however required to give full disclosures of the parameters which they had considered while deciding the issue price. There are two types of issues one where company and LM fix a price (called fixed price) and other, where the company and LM stipulate a floor price or a price band and leave it to market forces to determine the final price (price discovery through book building process).
What does “price discovery through book building process” mean?
“Book Building” means a process undertaken by which a demand for the securities proposed to be issued by a body corporate is elicited and built up and the price for the securities is assessed on the basis of the bids obtained for the quantum of securities offered for subscription by the issuer. This method provides an opportunity to the market to discover price for securities.
What is a price band?
The red herring prospectus may contain either the floor price for the securities or a price band within which the investors can bid. The spread between the floor and the cap of the price band shall not be more than 20%. In other words, it means that the cap should not be more than 120% of the floor price. The price band can have a revision and such a revision in the price band shall be widely disseminated by informing the stock exchanges, by issuing press release and also indicating the change on the relevant website and the terminals of the syndicate members. In case the price band is revised, the bidding period shall be extended for a further period of three days, subject to the total bidding period not exceeding thirteen days.
Who decides the price band?
It may be understood that the regulatory mechanism does not play a role in setting the price for issues. It is up to the company to decide on the price or the price band, in consultation with Merchant Bankers. The basis of issue price is disclosed in the offer document. The issuer is required to disclose in detail about the qualitative and quantitative factors justifying the issue price.
Is there any preference while doing the allotment?
The allotment to the Qualified Institutional Buyers (QIBs) is on a discretionary basis. The discretion is left to the Merchant Bankers who first disclose the parameters of judgment in the Red Herring Prospectus. There are no objective conditions stipulated as per the DIP Guidelines. The Merchant Bankers are free to set their criteria and mention the same in the Red Herring Prospectus.
Who is eligible for reservation and how much? (QIBs, NIIs, etc.,)
In a book built issue allocation to Retail Individual Investors (RIIs), Non Institutional Investors (NIIs) and Qualified Institutional Buyers (QIBs) is in the ratio of 35: 15: 50 respectively. In case the book built issues are made pursuant to the requirement of mandatory allocation of 60% to QIBs in terms of Rule 19(2)(b) of SCRR, the respective figures are 30% for RIIs and 10% for NIIs. This is a transitory provision pending harmonization of the QIB allocation in terms of the aforesaid Rule with that specified in the guidelines.
How is the Retail Investor defined as?
‘Retail individual investor’ means an investor who applies or bids for securities of or for a value of not more than Rs.1,00,000.
Can a retail investor also bid in a book-built issue?
Yes. He can bid in a book-built issue for a value not more than Rs.1,00,000. Any bid made in excess of this will be considered in the HNI category.
Where can I get a form for applying/ bidding for the shares?
The form for applying/bidding of shares is available with all syndicate members, collection centers, the brokers to the issue and the bankers to the issue.
What is the amount of faith that I can lay on the contents of the documents? And whom should I approach if there are any lacunae?
The document is prepared by an independent specialized agency called Merchant Banker, which is registered with SEBI. They are required to do through due diligence while preparing an offer document. The draft offer document submitted to SEBI is put on website for public comments. In case, you have any information about the issuer or its directors or any other aspect of the issue, which in your view is not factually reflected, you may send your complaint to Lead Manager to the issue or to SEBI, Division of Issues and Listing.
Is it compulsory for me to have a Demat Account?
As per the requirement, all the public issues of size in excess of Rs.10 crore, are to made compulsorily in the demat more. Thus, if an investor chooses to apply for an issue that is being made in a compulsory demat mode, he has to have a demat account and has the responsibility to put the correct DP ID and Client ID details in the bid/application forms.
How many days is the issue open?
As per Clause 8.8.1, Subscription list for public issues shall be kept open for at least 3 working days and not more than 10 working days. In case of Book built issues, the minimum and maximum period for which bidding will be open is 3–7 working days extendable by 3 days in case of a revision in the price band. The public issue made by an infrastructure company, satisfying the requirements in Clause 2.4.1 (iii) of Chapter II may be kept open for a maximum period of 21 working days. As per clause 8.8.2., Rights issues shall be kept open for at least 30 days and not more than 60 days.
Can I change/revise my bid?
Yes. The investor can change or revise the quantity or price in the bid using the form for changing/revising the bid that is available along with the application form. However, the entire process of changing of revising the bids shall be completed within the date of closure of the issue.
Which are the reliable sources for me to get information about response to issues?
In the case of book-built issues, the exchanges (BSE/NSE) display the data regarding the bids obtained (on a consolidated basis between both these exchanges). The data regarding the bids is also available categorywise. After the price has been determined on the basis of bidding, the statutory public advertisement containing, inter alia, the price as well as a table showing the number of securities and the amount payable by an investor, based on the price determined, is issued.
How do I know if I am allotted the shares? And by what timeframe will I get a refund if I am not allotted?
The investor is entitled to receive a Confirmatory Allotment Note (CAN) in case he has been allotted shares within 15 days from the date of closure of a book Built issue. The registrar has to ensure that the demat credit or refund as applicable is completed within 15 days of the closure of the book built issue.
How long will it take after the issue for the shares to get listed?
The listing on the stock exchanges is done within 7 days from the finalization of the issue. Ideally, it would be around 3 weeks after the closure of the book built issue. In case of fixed price issue, it would be around 37 days after closure of the issue.
Who are the intermediaries in an issue?
Merchant Bankers to the issue or Book Running Lead Managers (BRLM), syndicate members, Registrars to the issue, Bankers to the issue, Auditors of the company, Underwriters to the issue, Solicitors, etc. are the intermediaries to an issue. The issuer discloses the addresses, telephone/fax numbers and email addresses of these intermediaries. In addition to this, the issuer also discloses the details of the compliance officer appointed by the company for the purpose of the issue.
Who is Qualified Institutional Buyer (QIBs)?
Qualified Institutional Buyers are those institutional investors who are generally perceived to possess expertise and the financial muscle to evaluate and invest in the capital markets. In terms of clause 2.2.2B (v) of DIP Guidelines, a ‘Qualified Institutional Buyer’ shall mean:
Public financial institution as defined in section 4A of theCompanies Act, 1956;
Scheduled commercial banks;
Foreign institutional investor registered with SEBI;
Multilateral and bilateral development financial institutions;
Venture capital funds registered with SEBI.
Foreign Venture capital investors registered with SEBI.
State Industrial Development Corporations.
Insurance Companies registered with the Insurance Regulatoryand Development Authority (IRDA).
Provident Funds with minimum corpus of Rs.25 crores
Pension Funds with minimum corpus of Rs. 25 crores)
These entities are not required to be registered with SEBI as QIBs. Any entities falling under the categories specified above are considered as QIBs for the purpose of participating in primary issuance process.
What is SEBI’s Role in an Issue?
Any company making a public issue or a listed company making a rights issue of value of more than Rs.50 lakhs is required to file a draft offer document with SEBI for its observations. The company can proceed further on the issue only after getting observations from SEBI. The validity period of SEBI’s observation letter is three months only ie. the company has to open its issue within three months period.
Does it mean that SEBI recommends an issue?
SEBI does not recommend any issue nor does take any responsibility either for the financial soundness of any scheme or the project for which the issue is proposed to be made or for the correctness of the statements made or opinions expressed in the offer document.
Does SEBI approve the contents of the issue?
It is to be distinctly understood that submission of offer document to SEBI should not in any way be deemed or construed that the same has been cleared or approved by SEBI. The Lead manager certifies that the disclosures made in the offer document are generally adequate and are in conformity with SEBI guidelines for disclosures and investor protection in force for the time being. This requirement is to facilitate investors to take an informed decision for making investment in the proposed issue.
Does SEBI tag make my money safe?
The investors should make an informed decision purely by themselves based on the contents disclosed in the offer documents. SEBI does not associate itself with any issue/issuer and should in no way be construed as a guarantee for the funds that the investor proposes to invest through the issue. However, the investors are generally advised to study all the material facts pertaining to the issue including the risk factors before considering any investment. They are strongly warned against any ‘tips’ or news through unofficial means.
What are Disclosures and Investor protection guidelines?
The primary issuances are governed by SEBI in terms of SEBI (Disclosures and Investor protection) guidelines. SEBI framed its DIP guidelines in 1992. Many amendments have been carried out in the same in line with the market dynamics and requirements. In 2000, SEBI issued “Securities and Exchange Board of India (Disclosure and Investor Protection) Guidelines, 2000” which is compilation of all circulars organized in chapter forms. These guidelines and amendments thereon are issued by SEBI India under section 11 of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992. SEBI (Disclosure and investor protection) guidelines 2000 are in short called DIP guidelines. It provides a comprehensive framework for issuances buy the companies.
How does SEBI ensure compliance with Disclosures and Investor protection?
The Merchant Banker are the specialized intermediaries who are required to do due diligence and ensure that all the requirements of DIP are complied with while submitting the draft offer document to SEBI. Any non compliance on their part, attract penal action from SEBI, in terms of SEBI (Merchant Bankers) Regulations. The draft offer document filed by Merchant Banker is also placed on the website for public comments. Officials of SEBI at various levels examine the compliance with DIP guidelines and ensure that all necessary material information is disclosed in the draft offer documents.
What is the difference between an offer document, Red Herring Prospectus, a prospectus and an abridged prospectus? What does it mean when someone says “draft offer doc”?
“Offer document” means Prospectus in case of a public issue or offer for sale and Letter of Offer in case of a rights issue, which is filed Registrar of Companies (ROC) and Stock Exchanges. An offer document covers all the relevant information to help an investor to make his/her investment decision. “Draft Offer document” means the offer document in draft stage. The draft offer documents are filed with SEBI, atleast 21 days prior to the filing of the Offer Document with ROC/ SEs. SEBI may specifies changes, if any, in the draft Offer Document and the issuer or the Lead Merchant banker shall carry out such changes in the draft offer document before filing the Offer Document with ROC/ SEs. The Draft Offer document is available on the SEBI website for public comments for a period of 21 days from the filing of the Draft Offer Document with SEBI.
What is a Red Herring Prospectus?
Red Herring Prospectus is a prospectus, which does not have details of either price or number of shares being offered, or the amount of issue. This means that in case price is not disclosed, the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. On the other hand, an issuer can state the issue size and the number of shares are determined later. An RHP for and FPO can be filed with the RoC without the price band and the issuer, in such a case will notify the floor price or a price band by way of an advertisement one day prior to the opening of the issue. In the case of book-built issues, it is a process of price discovery and the price cannot be determined until the bidding process is completed. Hence, such details are not shown in the Red Herring prospectus filed with ROC in terms of the provisions of the Companies Act. Only on completion of the bidding process, the details of the final price are included in the offer document. The offer document filed thereafter with ROC is called a prospectus.
How the word Promoter has been defined?
The promoter has been defined as a person or persons who are in over-all control of the company, who are instrumental in the formulation of a plan or programme pursuant to which the securities are offered to the public and those named in the prospectus as promoters(s). It may be noted that a director / officer of the issuer company or person, if they are acting as such merely in their professional capacity are not be included in the definition of a promoter.
‘Promoter Group’ includes the promoter, an immediate relative of the promoter (i.e. any spouse of that person, or any parent, brother, sister or child of theperson or of the spouse). In case promoter is a company, a subsidiary or holding company of that company; any company in which the promoter holds 10% or more of the equity capital or which holds 10% or more of the equity capital of the Promoter; any company in which a group of individuals or companies or combinations thereof who holds 20% or more of the equity capital in that company also holds 20% or more of the equity capital of the issuer company.
In case the promoter is an individual, any company in which 10% or more of the share capital is held by the promoter or an immediate relative of the promoter’ or a firm or HUF in which the ‘Promoter’ or any one or more of his immediate relative is a member; any company in which a company specified in (i) above, holds 10% or more, of the share capital; any HUF or firm in which the aggregate share of the promoter and his immediate relatives is equal to or more than 10% of the total, and all persons whose shareholding is aggregated for the purpose of disclosing in the prospectus “shareholding of the promoter group”.
Source : SEBI